Within a few years, great civilizations and universities were flourishing, for according to the Prophet (pbuh), ‘seeking knowledge is an obligation for every Muslim man & woman’. The synthesis of Eastern & Western ideas and of new thought with old, brought about great advances in medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, architecture, art, literature, and history. Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and also the concept of zero (vital to the advancement of mathematics), were transmitted to medieval Europe from Islam. Sophisticated instruments which were to make possible the European voyages of discovery were developed, including the astrolabe, the quadrant and good navigational maps.
- Astrolabe:-instrument formerly used to measure the altitude of stars etc.
- Quadrant:-a graduated quarter-circular strip of metal etc. b instrument graduated (esp. through an arc of 90°) for measuring angles.